Loginova Olga: Consulting Psychologist specializing in Positive Psychology. Art Therapist, Trainer of NLP
Loginova O. I.
Influence of emotions on physiological processes
Now more and more people all over the world have stress.
It is connected with the big emotional loads which arise in various reality situations. As the consequence of the stress the psychosomatic phenomena arises – the corporal reflection of the mental human life.
According to World Health Organization from 38 to 42 % of all patients visiting the cabinets of somatic doctors are referred to the group of psychosomatic patients. Psychosomatic manifestation is the approach considering the variety of the reasons resulting in illness. From here the variety of methods and the techniques allowing to work with the person as a whole. The psychosomatic approach begins when the patient ceases to be only the carrier of a diseased organ and is studied as a whole.
Now the psychosomatics serves for treatment of diseases. It investigates influence of the emotions on physiological processes. As a branch of psychology the psychosomatics examines the behavioral reactions connected with the diseases, the psychological mechanisms influencing the physiological functions. As the social science it studies the prevalence of psychosomatic disorders, their connection with the cultural traditions and living conditions.
The psychosomatics history begins from S. Freud's psychoanalytical concept. Such scientists as A. Lowen, V.Reich, M. Feldenkreiz, G. Sele, modern German psychotherapist N. Peseshkian, etc were dealing with the research of the psychosomatic phenomena.
Manifestation of psychosomatic symptoms
For the first time the term " psychosomatics " was offered by German doctor Johann Heinrot in 1818. He used the given term to describe the interrelation of corporal illnesses of the patients and their mental anxiety. In his opinion, the cause-and-effect relation starting from the notion that somatic disorders can be caused by the mental disorders.
Followers of Heinrot thought that all corporal illnesses have the psychological reasons. The psychosomatics was initially represented as the "psychosomatic medicine".
The modern view on the psychosomatics is beyond the concept of health and illnesses.
Psychosomatics (from Greek Psyche – soul + soma - body).
The psychosomatics – is a corporal manifestation of the emotions (the consequence of the misbalance for which becomes the psychosomatic illnesses), and also the "mirror" of the other subconscious processes, the corporal channel of the conscious-subconscious communication. In this context the body is represented as some kind of the screen on which the symbolical messages of the subconscious mind are projected. Interrelation of the body ("soma") and mentality is always bilateral. Like all somatic disorders have the psychological "roots", so any psychological problems always bring the psychosomatic "fruits". The difference is only in what part remains on the foreground. Which of them has more expressed external manifestations. And in the same way, as the recovery from the corporal illnesses can be reached by study of the psychological reasons which generated them, the reverse situation is equally fair too. Through the corporal manifestations of the psychological problems we can reach directly the depths of the subconscious mind.
Kondakov I.M. writes that there is a series of diseases in which the role of psychosomatic factors is extremely great. It is hypertension, stomach ulcer, diabetes, glaucoma. It is established that the occurrence of these diseases is essential caused by the personal features. So, coronary diseases develop mainly at purposeful, ambitious, impatient people, and ulcerous diseases arise in anxious, irritable people with the increased feeling of responsibility.
The founder of the method for positive psychotherapy the doctor of medical sciences Peseshkian N also thinks that problems lie at the heart of any somatopathies psychological. In the book "Psychosomatics and positive psychotherapy" describes 40 diseases which are directly connected with the psychological reasons.
The German psychotherapist refers to such diseases:
Some people feel fear for their state of health (hypochondria). They are afraid of cancer (cancer phobia)
In case of depression the disorders concentrate in the corporal symptoms, for example in complaints for heart, head, shoulder girdle, dorsodynias, digestion problems, sleep and appetite disturbances. And also the gynecologic disturbances and disorders in the sexual sphere. As a rule these complaints according to N.Peseshkian are hiding the professional and partner problems: anxiety about the future which grow from the microinjuring actual abilities. The actual abilities include such character features as cleanliness, accuracy, sexuality, accuracy, reliability, honesty, etc. In total N.Peseshkian distinguishes 24 main actual abilities.
Symptomatic depression is caused by the somatopathies (susceptibility to infections, diabetes, diseases of thyroid gland, fluctuation of arterial pressure, rheumatic illnesses, allergy etc.) and depend on the way the patient learned to treat with his illness.
According N.Peseshkian's observations in the patients with asthma the main role is plaid by such actual abilities, as distribution of time and punctuality, as stressful factors ("I should always hurry up"). Breath is influenced unconsciously by our emotions. Any movements of soul, more or less considerably reflect in breath.
According to Braeutgam and Christian, asthmatic patients are extremely dependent on opinion of the people surrounding them.
Results of researches by Kissen, and other scientists showed that ignoring and suppression of feelings and conflicts can raise risk of development of malignant tumor.
The psychosomatic manifestations in people of the middle age may include also the female and male infertility. This fact has been already proved by a series of scientific researches.
One of the reasons of the female and male infertility is the stress.
The notion of the stress was offered by G.Sele.
Stress is one of kinds of the emotional state.
As Perova Е. I. wrote, originally the notion of stress arose in physiology to describe the nonspecific reactions of the organism («the general adaptive syndrome») in response to any adverse effect.
Many foreign scientists were engaged in research of the stress and its reaction on the human body.
Stressful reactance includes rising of the level of cholesterol in blood serum, hurried breathing and heart rhythms, rising of the muscular tension, arterial pressure etc.
Zolotova T.N. thinks that on the physiological level the following manifestations of stress are typical:
R.Naydiffer describes reaction of people at high degree of anxiety on the physiological level. In one people the muscles of the neck and shoulders have reflex tension, in the others – the muscles of the back or feet strain with reflex. The unpleasant feeling in the stomach area is very often observed in cases of the high degree of anxiety. Some people feel palpitation increase, the others, on the contrary, have the under frequency of it. In some cases the drowsiness is registered.
The great contribution to research of the psychosomatic phenomena was brought by V.Reich, Franz Alexander, the author of "Psychosomatic medicine", who combined the physiological and psychological approaches. In his opinion the sympathetic reactions of the nervous system lead to the high blood pressure, diabetes, rheumatic arthritis, diseases of the thyroid gland and headaches. Parasympathetic reaction leads to ulcers, diarrhea, inflammation of the colon and constipations. He paid attention that diseases of the heart arteries occur in the doctors, lawyers and workers of the executive authorities more often.
The reasons for occurrence of the painful symptoms in the people of middle age very closely intertwine with the conflict situations incurred by the people throughout the long period of life before this illness. These can be both macro traumas, and micro traumas which can have the form of the standard of domestic problems, for example the accuracy or punctuality of the partner, a trip in the overcrowded transport, financial problems etc.
Having found out in the course of work with the clients that problems with health have not the organic character, but the expressed psychological character, the psychologist applies the various methods and techniques for the psychological counseling to eliminate the psychosomatic symptoms.
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